A companion map of producing and potential frac sand and resin-coated sand source units in the conterminous U. In a study of 13 hydraulically fractured shale gas wells in north-central Pennsylvania, USGS researchers found that the microbiology and organic chemistry of the produced waters varied widely from well to well. More data and research are necessary to best understand the potential risks to water quality associated with unconventional oil and gas development in the United States, according to a recent U. Geological Survey study. Two new U. Geological Survey publications that highlight historical hydraulic fracturing trends and data from to are now available.
Equipment set up to pump water from a lake to an impoundment for hydraulic fracturing in the Fayetteville Shale of Arkansas. A hydraulic fracturing operation is underway at this drilling pad in the Marcellus Shale gas play of southwestern Pennsylvania. Generalized image showing the key points in hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas development where water is part of the process.
This map shows the average water use in hydraulic fracturing per oil and gas well in watersheds across the United States. Search Search. An area undergoing production of oil or gas using hydraulic fracturing technology shares many features with areas where conventional oil or gas is being developed, including: Roads Pipelines Compressor stations Processing facilities. Features that are unique to areas in which hydraulic fracturing is used include: Fewer but larger drilling pads, both to accommodate the equipment needed to conduct the hydraulic fracturing and to house multiple wells on each drilling pad Impoundments to store the large amounts of water needed for hydraulic fracturing.
Year Select Year Apply Filter. Why have some estimates of undiscovered technically recoverable oil or gas changed so much from previous estimates? Where in the United States is hydraulic fracturing being used for oil and gas extraction? Hydraulic fracturing is used in many established oil and gas producing regions of the country as well as some areas new to the petroleum industry.
Maps of major shale gas, tight gas, and tight oil basins are available from the U. Energy Information Administration, although not all of the shale basins shown currently have production.
Surface Chemistry And Geochemistry Of Hydraulic Fracturing (Hb)
Who is responsible for monitoring the issues associated with hydraulic fracturing and protecting our environment? Individual states regulate many aspects of oil and gas exploration and production. This includes conducting environmental impact When did hydraulic fracturing become such a popular approach to oil and gas production?
Hydraulic fracturing in vertical wells has been used for over fifty years to improve the flow of oil and gas from conventional reservoirs. However, the current practice of horizontal drilling coupled with multiple applications of hydraulic fracturing in a single well was pioneered in the late s and has continued to evolve.
Since the final What is hydraulic fracturing? This process is intended to create new fractures in the rock as well as increase the size, extent, and connectivity of What is in the fluid injected into the ground during hydraulic fracturing? In general, hydraulic fracturing fluid is composed of water, proppant typically sand , and chemicals. A public website known as FracFocus has been established by industry that lists specific materials used in many, but not all, hydraulically fractured wells. Individual companies select a few chemicals to be used from hundreds that are available What is the USGS role related to hydraulic fracturing?
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Surface Chemistry and Geochemistry of Hydraulic Fracturing - K. S. Birdi - Google книги
But what happens in the shale rocks? Shale rocks are fractured by hydraulic processes to enhance the permeability of gas and oil through the formation. The goal is to be able to extract the hydrocarbon stored in the formations.
But, no two shale formations are alike: can we predict how much hydrocarbon is present in one formation before we fracture it? We employ computer modeling to predict the amount of hydrocarbons, for example propane, a component of natural gas, in simple representations of pores. We can then explore the effect of rock type e.
During the process of fracturing, water comes in contact with the shale formation. Once the procedure is completed, part of the water returns to the surface containing substances that cannot be released to the environment e. Can we design economical technologies to efficiently extract the undesired substances from water? Argyris, A.
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